Science and Technology (S&T) Policy
A Compendium of Related Terminologies and Definitions
Version 2.0
March 1996


Foad Shodjai
shodjai@sfu.ca
Centre for Policy Research on Science and Technology (CPROST)
Simon Fraser University
Vancouver, BC, CANADA

Table of Contents


How to Use the Compendium

Format

Entries are alphabetically ordered, its entry name is in bold font, the list is sequentially numbered. Sub-items and/or grouping is shown by indentation in the printed edition, and by heading tags (H2 to H5) in the on-line HTML edition.

References

Major references are also included for each definition or description. References to Frascati and Oslo Manual are paragraph numbers (see bibliography for which revision is used).

Navigation (on-line HTML edition only)

Hypertext links are listed at the top of the HTML edition. Click on the desired item and the Web Browser should display the entry.

Distribution

The Compendium is typeset using FrameMaker 4.0. A printed copy may be obtained by emailing the author. HTML edition is produced by using fm2html tool, and published on CPROST's web server. To see the on-line edition point your web browser to http://edie.cprost.sfu.ca/~shodjai.

How to Add Entries to the Compendium

It is possible to add an entry, or a set of entries to the Compendium. The plan is to automate the process by creating an HTML Form that you can use from your Web Browser.

Meanwhile, please email me with the following on each entry, and I will update the Compendium on regular basis.

Entry name --- the entry will appear under this name, e.g., an acronym.
Definition --- a paragraph pertaining to the Entry. It is preferred to extract passages from manuals of standards, text books, or core literature. Please include full bibliographical reference as well.

What type of entries would be of interest?

Acronyms and abbreviations
Definition of standards in measurement of R&D
Major publications and/or manuals of standards related to S&T, R&D, and Indicators. Please include full bibliographic data
Agencies with a brief description of their activities, and contact information including address, telephone#, fax, email, URL
Individuals, their main research work, publications, and contact information
Government's national institutions of Science including their contact information. e.g., National Science Foundation (NSF) of USA; COLCIENCIAS of Columbia

Notes on Version 2.0, March 1996

This compendium started in my previous study. This new listing now has more than 120 new entries, bringing the total to just under 200. As it is growing, the entries seem to fall into a few distinct categories, such as:

Acronyms and Abbreviations
Definition of standards for survey and practice
Institutions and Agencies (government and private)
Papers and Articles
People and Biographies
Studies (research and surveys)

The future versions of this compendium will group the entries under appropriate headings, and will be based on a searchable database provided over the Internet with a Web Browser interface.

Notes on Version 1.0, 1995

There are many working definitions and acronyms found in the core manuals on Innovation and Indicators. As the subject of my thesis will be very closely related to it, I decided to start compiling a glossary of terms covering acronyms and definitions and major references for each one. Such a compendium is essential to help finding the exact definition and reference of various terminologies quickly. As such this collection is continuously maintained and essential to my research in the immediate future.

Compendium Entries

1. ACOST

Advisory Council on Science and Technology, UK (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 292)

2. Acquisition of disembodied technology

One of the six fields of innovative activities (Frascati, 21)
Includes acquisition of external technology in the form of patents, non-patents inventions, licences, disclosures of know-how, trademarks, design, patterns and services with a technological content. (Frascati, 21)

3. Acquisition of embodied technology

One of the six fields of innovative activities (Frascati, 21)
Covers acquisition of machinery and equipment with a technological content connected to either product or process innovations introduced by the firm. (Frascati, 21)

4. AECL

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canada (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

5. AgCan

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

6. AMT

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 270)

7. Applied Research

Original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. (Frascati, 229, 58)

8. APR

Academically related research (Resource, Vol.1, p. 27)
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 312)

9. ASBR

Academic Separately budgeted research (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 312)

10. Basic Research

Experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. (Frascati, 224, 58)

11. BE

Business Enterprise (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

12. BERD

Business Enterprise expenditures on Research and Development (Resource, vol 1, p. 41)

13. Binary data type

Exclusive selection of one of the two options. e.g. 1. Important, 2. Not important (Oslo, 127)

14. BLS

Bureau of labour Statistics, USA
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 334)

15. Capital Expenditures

The annual gross expenditures on fixed assets used in the R&D programma of statistical units. The are composed of:
land and buildings;
instruments and equipment. (Frascati, 356)

16. CCI

Current Impact Index.
...compares the citation rate to the last six years of a company's patents, from the current year, with the average citation rate, for all patents in the same years and technologies. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 371)

17. CCPCs

Canadian-controlled private corporations, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

18. CHI Research Inc.

CHI Research Inc., 10 White Horse Pike, Haddon Heights, NJ, 08035, USA. Francis Narin is president and Muichael B Albert and Vincent M Smith are vice presidents at CHI. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 369)

19. CIDA

Canadian International Development Agency, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

20. Citation

An output indicator

21. High impact papers and journals

One of the most obvious uses of citation data is to indicate particular papers that have attracted the highest attention from other peer S&T authors. By varying the time span of citations and/or publication, historical `classical' and currently `hot' papers are readily identified. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 323)

22. Most Cited Authors

Over the years, ISI has published several studies identifying the most-cited authors in various fields and covering different time periods. It should be noted that authors in larger fields achieve higher citation rates. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 322)

23. Leading universities and corporations

From the author affiliation and address data on articles indexed and cited in ISI's database, time-series ranking of leading institutions in different fields and specialties are available for S&T analyses. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 324)

24. Self-citation

That an author cites his or her own prior research is a legitimate and expected practice,... But excessive self-citation may lead to inflated impact ranking of authors or papers. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 326)

25. Citation circles

are related to the phenomenon of self-citation. That is, groups of researchers might theoretically `conspire' to preferentially cite only the work of authors in the group. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 326)

26. Obliteration phenomenon

...must be take into account when applying citation data to S&T evaluations. This refers to a well-known process in which breakthrough advances---for example, Einstein's theory of relativity or Watson and Crick's description of DNA's double-helix structure---are paradoxically cites less frequently over time. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 326)

27. CNR

National Research Council of Italy

28. Com

Communications Canada, now Industry Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

29. CPC

Combined Trade/Production Goods Classification (Oslo, 252)

30. CPROST

Centre for Policy Research on Science and Technology, Simon Fraser University at Harbour Centre, Vancouver, Canada.
<A HREF="http://edie.cprost.sfu.ca">Web Page</A>

31. CSA

Canadian Space Agency, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

32. CSTP

the Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy (CSTP) of OECD. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 281)

33. CSTQ

Science and Technology Council of Quebec (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 304)

34. DAEs

Dynamic Asian Economics (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 284)

35. Design

One of the six fields of innovative activities (Frascati, 21)
An essential part of the innovation process. It covers plans and drawings aimed at defining procedures, technical specifications and operational features necessary to the conception, development, manufacturing and marketing of new products and processes. (Frascati, 21)

36. Diffusion (of innovation)

The way in which innovations spread, through market or non-market channels. Without diffusion, an innovation will have no economic impact. (Oslo, 9)

37. EC

European Community

38. EFTA

European Free Trade Association (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 284)

39. EIC

Employment and Immigration Canada, now Human Resources Development Canada (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

40. EMR

Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, now Natural Resources Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

41. Enterprise-type unit

The smallest possible separate legal entity with a degree of economic independence (Oslo, 238)

42. EnvCan

Environment Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

43. EPO

European Patent Office
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 371)

44. Experimental Development

Systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience that is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed. (Frascati, 234, 58)

45. Extramural R&D Expenditure

This comprises the acquisition of R&D services (Oslo, 220; Frascati, VI 6.4)
Pertaining to scientific activities for which funding and other services are provided to another agency to carry out, and may include grants, contributions or contracts. (Resource, Vol. 1, p. 39)

46. F&O

Fisheries and Oceans Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

47. ForCan

Forest Canada, now Natural Resources Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

48. FTE

Full-Time Equivalent (Frascati, V 5.3.3, 30)

49. G7

Group of Seven most developed member countries of OECD, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)
U.S.A, France, U.K., Japan, Italy, Canada, Germany (1990) (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 325)

50. GBAORD

Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays for R&D (Frascati, VIII, 52-5)

51. GDP

Gross Domestic Product.
Total flow of goods and services produced by an economy over a specified period of time, normally one year (Resource, Vol. 1, p. 39)

52. GERD

Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D is total intramural expenditure on R&D performed on the national territory during a given period. (Frascati, VI 6.5.1, table VI.1, 37) (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 264)
...a statistical series, constructed by adding together the intramural expenditures on R&D as reported by the performing sectors.... The GERD and GERD matrix are fundamental to internal examination and international comparisons of R&D expenditures.... To summarize, the GERD serves as a general indicator of S&T activity and not as a detailed inventory of R&D projects within an organizations, sector, or country. It is as estimate and as such can show trends in R&D expenditures by sector and sub-sector, by region and country, from year to year. In this capacity, the GERD estimates are sufficiently reliable for their main use as an aggregate indicator for science policy. (Framework for Measuring Research and Development in Canada, cat# 88-506E, p. 13-4)

53. GNP

Gross National Product
GDp plus the income accruing to domestic residents arising from investment abroad less income earned in the domestic market accruing to foreigners abroad. (Resource, Vol. 1, p. 39)

54. GNERD

Gross NAtional Expenditure on R&D (Frascati, VI, 6.5.2, table VI.2)

55. GUF

General University Fund (Frascati, VI 6.3.3.3, 274, 469)
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 312)

56. HC

Health Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

57. HERD

Higher education expenditures on research and development, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

58. High-Technology Industries

Include aerospace, electronics, computers, scientific instruments, pharmaceutical and electrical machinery. (OECD, ref?)

59. HLSCST

House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology, UK (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 291)

60. HQP

Highly Qualified Personnel
is the largest cost component of R&D and an important indicator itself of technological investment (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 270)

61. HWC

Health and Welfare Canada, now Health Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

62. ICC

Information, Computer and Communication
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 286)

63. IDRC

International Development Research Centre, Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

64. IEA

International Energy Agency of OECD (Frascati, 476)

65. IFO

Institute for Wirtschaftsforschung, Germany. (Oslo, 87, 260)

66. IIA

Indicators of Industrial Activity
Short term industrial statistics---quantitative and qualitative---will be collected in the Indicators of Industrial Activity time series database. This database is a key input into the OECD's Annual Review of Industry. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 286)

67. IIASA

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 289)

68. IndCan

Industry Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

69. Industry

Business and government enterprises including public utilities and government-owned firms as well as incorporated consultants providing scientific and engineering services (Resource, vol. 1, p. 39)

70. Innovation, R&D and Scientific and Technological

Scientific and technological innovation may be considered as the transformation of an idea into a new or improved product introduced on the market or a new improved operational process used in industry and commerce or into a new approach to a social service. (Frascati, 20)

71. Innovation Surveys

Innovation surveys are of two basic types: those which focus on significant technological innovations (usually identified through trade journals or other literature), and those which focus on firm-level innovation inputs (both R&D and non-R&D) and outputs (usually of product innovations.) (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p. 384)

72. Significant technological innovations surveys: (Europe)

73. SPRU
The first category includes most notably the SPRU database which collected information on major technical innovat5ion in British industry... (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p. 384)

74. Firm-level surveys: (Europe)

75. The IFO Innovation Survey
...in Germany, a panel survey of approximately 3,000 firms carried out under the direction of Lother Scholz. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p. 385)
76. The work of G Sirilli
...and his colleagues at the Institute for Studies on Research and Scientific Documentation at the national Research Council of Italy (CNR), carried out in collaboration with ISTAT (Institute for Science, Technology and Trade). This very ambitious work has covered around, 35,000 firms with a combination of mail survey and interviews. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p. 385)
77. The work of Albert Kleinknech
...in the Netherlands, whose survey covers R&D activities, patenting, IT applications and development, training, and use of government support. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p. 385)
78. The work of Andre Paitier,
...who carried out mail and interview surveys of respectively 5,000 and approximately 300 French firms. He examined numbers, types and novelty of innovations; innovation expenditures; obstacles to innovation; and R&D functions. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p. 385)
79. The work of the Nordic Innovation Indicators Group.
This is an integrated survey of manufacturing innovation carried out in Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, covering firm characteristics and innovation strategies, innovation output, sources of technological information and innovative ideas, obstacles to innovation, purchase and sale of technology, the role of public policy and economic outcomes. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p. 385)
80. Innovation in French manufacturing
...a recent survey carried out by the Observatoire des Sciences et des Techniques (OST) in Paris (on behalf of the Ministry for Industry), examining types and extent of innovation output, source of innovation, sectorial patterns of innovation, and future plans, in a sample of approximately 15,000 firms. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p. 385)

81. Firm-level (USA)

82. The work of Hansen, Stein and Moore
...for the National Science Foundation, based on a mail survey of 600 companies.

83. Innovation, technological

84. Technological innovations

...comprise new products and processes and significant technological changes of products and processes. An innovation has been implemented if it has been introduced on the market (product innovation) or used within a production process (process innovation). Innovations therefore involve a series of scientific, technological, organizational, financial and commercial activities. (Frascati, 20; Oslo, 20)

85. R&D is only one of these activities

...and may be carried out at different phases of the innovation process, acting not only as the original source of inventive ideas as a form of problem solving which can be called on at any point up to implementation. (Frascati, 19)

86. Innovative activities

Research and experimental development (R&D), Tooling up and industrial engineering, manufacturing start-up, marketing for new products, acquisition of disembodied technology, acquisition of embodied technology, design (Oslo, IV 3) See each item for its definition.

87. Intangible investment

Covers all current expenditure for the firm's development which is expected to give a return over a longer period than the year in which it was incurred. There is no standard definition, but it is generally taken to cover non-routine marketing expenditure, training expenditure, expenditure on software and some other similar items, in addition to current expenditure on R&D. (Oslo, 229)

88. Innovation System

Players involved in the generation of innovation, such as the government, industry, and universities, and the means through which information contributing to the development of innovation moves between them (Resources, vol. 1, p. 39)

89. INPI

Institute National de la Proprité Industrielle, France
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 348)

90. Intramural R&D Expenditure

All Expenditures for R&D performed within a statistical unit or sector of the economy, whatever the source of funds. (Frascati, 336)
This item comprises total expenditure on R&D as defined in the Frascati Manual (336) and as reported in R&D surveys. In most cases all this R&D is intended to contribute to the introduction of new products and processes in the firm concerned. However, where s firm carries out R&D purely as a service for another e enterprise (or government agency) to contribute exclusively to innovation by the latter, an attempt should be made to identify the funds concerned so that they can be excluded in order to avoid double-counting when total (intramural and extramural) expenditure is summed over industries. (Oslo, 219)

91. IRAP

Industrial Research Assistance Program, a Canadian program.
See CPROST's web site, http://edie.cprost.sfu.ca, for more information.

92. ISCED

International Standard Classification of Education (Frascati, 10, 32, 323)

93. ISCO

International Standard Classification of Occupations (Frascati, 10, 32, V 5.4)

94. ISI

The Institute for Scientific Information
ISI's databases are comprehensive, indexing all types of items that a journal publishes.... ISI fully indexes these items, including all authors' names, institutional affiliations and addresses, article titles, journal, volume, issue, year, pages.... ISI indexes not only all journal source items but also all the references they cite.... ISI's databases include about 15,000,000 papers published since 1945 and more than 200,000,000 references they cite. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 322)

95. ISIC

The International Standard Industrial Classification (Oslo, 244; Frascati, 10)

96. ISIS

Information System on Industrial Structures, a database
Detailed data on annual industrial statistics will be collected using the ISIS reporting system and database. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 286)

97. ISRDS

The Institute for Studies on Scientific Research and Documentation of the National Research Council of Italy (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 349)

98. ISTC

Industry, Science and Technology Canada, now Industry Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

99. IT

Information Technology

100. ITC

Investment Tax Credit, Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

101. Manufacturing start-up and pre-production development

May include product or process modifications, retraining personnel in the new techniques or in the use of the new machinery, and trial production if its implies further design and engineering. (Frascati, 21)

102. Marketing for new products

Covers activities in connection with the launching of a new product. These may include tests, adaptation of the product for different markets and launch advertising, but will exclude the building of distribution networks to market innovations. (Frascati, 21)

103. MESS

Quebec's department of higher education and science, the Ministère de l'Enseignment Supérieur et de la Science, which is largely responsible for science policy, has its own science policy indicators division. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 304)

104. MoD

Ministry of Defense, UK (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 292)

105. Models

Several models are used in describing systems of innovation.

106. Input/Output Model

Study of systems in terms of its inputs and outputs.

107. Linear Model

Innovation is perceived to take in place in a linear fashion. It starts with research, then invention, moving onto innovation, and finally diffusion of new techniques. (Oslo, 37)
Improved models have not yet come into widespread use. Consequently the linear model is still often invoked in current discussions, particularly in political discussion. (Kline and Rosenberg, cited in Oslo, 37)
...has been used to explain the links between R&D and economic performance. It is so highly abstract that it does not really explain the complexities of innovation in real world. Yet it still informs many policy discussion. This fact alone has led economic historian Nathan Rosenberg (1991) to say it "is dead, but it won't lie down." (Resource, vol 2, p 12)

108. Chain-Link Model

Proposed by Kaline and Rosenberg (Oslo, 44). See Oslo, paragraph 44 for a diagram.
...puts its emphasis more systematically on the interrelatedness of the different phases of innovation process and on the feedback mechanism that are involved. (Resource, vol 2, p 13, includes a diagram)

109. Neural Model

...ideas, techniques and commodities are all interconnected, attesting to the serendipity of innovation. The advantage of this kind of approach is that it places the cognitive nature of innovation and the flows of knowledge between actors at centre stage. However, it does little to help in either the analysis of innovation and its links to economic performance or in the management of the process. (Resource book, vol 2, p. 13, includes a diagram)

110. The Model of Interaction between Opportunities, Capabilities, and Strategies

This model perceives the process of innovation in terms of interactions between opportunities, capabilities, and strategies. (Oslo, 37).

111. MRC

Medical Research Council of Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

112. MSTI

Main Science and Technology Indicators database (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 282)

113. NAO

National Audit Office, UK (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 292)

114. NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 335)

115. NCR

National Capital Region, Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

116. NCTA

Non-Connected Technical Assistance
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 348)

117. NDEF

National Defense, Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

118. NESTI

National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators (Oslo p. 7)

119. NEXT

OECD's foreign trade database
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 287)

120. NIH

National Institute of Health, USA
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 335)

121. NLC

National Library of Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

122. NMC

National Museums of Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

123. NORDFORK

Nordic Industrial Fund (Frascati, 427)

124. NRC

National Research Council Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

125. NRCan

National Resources Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

126. NSE

Natural Sciences and Engineering (Frascati, 25-7)

127. NSERC

National Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

128. NSF

National Science Foundation, United States. (Frascati, 112)
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 335)

129. OECD

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, part of the system of Western international institutions developed after World War II, is a forum monitoring economic trends in its 25 member countries, the free-market democracies of North America, Western Europe, and the Pacific. The OECD is the world's largest source of comparative data on the industrial economies. It provides a wide range of publications---country studies, comparative analysis, statistical reports---prepared by its Secretariat. (OECD's Web page).
It consists of 25 country members: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, Turkey.
<A HREF="http://www.oecd.org">Web Page</A>

130. OMB

Office of Management and Budget, USA
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 339)

131. Ordinal data type

Scale assessment: e.g. as in selecting one that best describes a situation: 1. not important,
2. somewhat important, 3. important, 5. very important (Oslo, 127)

132. OSTP

Office of Science and Technology Programs
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 339)

133. OTA

Office of Technology Assessment, USA (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 334)

134. Patents, Domestic

The number of patents taken out in a country by residents of that country. This is a measure of innovative activity within the country. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 272)

135. Patent, External

The number of patents that residents of a country take out in other countries. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 272)
Represents corporate assessments of a country's ability to use and market a technology (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 272)

136. Partially Convergent Indicators

If several indicators, each of which only partially describes a phenomenon, all lead to the same conclusion, then that conclusion can be taken as valid (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 264)

137. PNP

The proportion of sales due to new products (Oslo, 152-5, 161)

138. PNP

Private Non-Profit (Frascati, 42)
Charitable foundations, voluntary health organizations, scientific and professional societies, and other organizations not established to earn profits (Resource, vol 1, p. 39)

139. Political nature of science and indicators (paper))

A paper by John de la Mothe, Science and Public Policy, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 401-6).
Abstract: S&T indicators are an essential tool for policy-makers as such and have become a political issue. This paper traces the history of science indicators and their link to the world of politics. It concludes that nations which ignore S&T indicators do so to their detriment.
Headings: Science, `freedom' and politics; Science, priorities and public affairs; Science, indicators and policy.

140. PPP

Purchase Power Parity, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 312)

141. PRO

Provincial Research Organization, Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

142. Product Innovation

The commercialization of a technologically changed product. Technological change occurs when the design characteristics of a product change in ways which deliver new or improved services to consumers of a product. (Oslo, 7) (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p. 387)

143. Major product innovation

...is a product whose intended use, performance characteristics, attributes, design properties or use of materials and components differs significantly compared with previously manufactured products. Such innovation can involve radically new technologies, or can be based on combining existing technologies in new uses. (Oslo, 93)

144. Incremental product innovation

...is an existing product whose performance has been significantly enhanced or upgraded. (See ref for more detail, Oslo 95)

145. Process Innovation

Occurs when there is significant change in the technology of the production of an item. This may involve new equipment, new management and organization method, or both. (Oslo, 8)
Is the adaptation of new or significantly improved production methods, These methods may involve changes in equipment or production organization of both. The methods may be intended to produce new or improved products, which cannot be produced using conventional plants or production methods, or essentially to increase the production efficiency of existing products. (Oslo, 97)

146. Product Differentiation

Minor modifications of products and processes (Oslo, 98)
Minor technical aesthetic modifications of products (Oslo, 99)

147. PYs

Person Years, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

148. R&D

Research and Experimental Development (Frascati, 3; related activities I 1.5)
Comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications" (Frascati, 57; Oslo, 108)
R&D is a term covering three activities: basic research, applied research and experimental development. See each item for its definition. (Frascati, 58)

149. R&D Personnel

All persons employed directly on R&D should be counted, as well as those providing direct support services such as R&D managers, administrators and clerical staff. (Frascati, 280)

150. R D & D

Research, Development and Demonstration (Frascati, 22)

151. Researchers (RSE)

Professionals engaged in the conception of creation of new knowledge, products processes, methods and systems, and in managing the projects concerned. (Frascati, 312)

152. REP

Relative Expenditure Priority
Comparison of each country's disciplinary distribution of research effort with in international average is made easier if the REP Index is used. This is defined as follows:
REP for field A in country = (%share of field A in Country X) / (%share of field A for all 8 Countries)
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 315)

153. RSA

Related Scientific Activities, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

154. SBR

Separately budgeted research (Resource, Vol. 1, p. 27)

155. Science Watch

A magazine published by the Institute for Scientific Information. It regularly examines the trends over time of national performance, in various disciplines. The magazine also uses the same database to identify high-performing individual researchers, specific university departments and even `hot' subject areas. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 272)

156. Sector, Abroad

This sector consists of:
---All institutions and individuals located outside the political frontiers of a country except for vehicles, ships, aircraft and space satellites operated by domestic organizations and testing grounds acquired by such organizations.
---All international organizations (except business enterprise) including facilities and operations within the frontiers of a country. (Frascati, 215)

157. Sector, Business Enterprise

This sector includes:
---All firms, organizations and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods or services (other than High Education) for sale to the general public at an economically significant price
---The private non-profit institutes mainly serving them. (Frascati, 145)
The core of this sector is made of private enterprises (corporations or quasi-corporations) whether or not they distribute profit. (Frascati 146). In addition, it includes public enterprises (public corporations and quasi-corporations owned by government units) mainly engages in market production and sale of the kind of goods and services which are often produced by private enterprises, though as a matter of policy the price set for these may be less than the full cost of production. (Frascati, 147)

158. Sector, Government

This sector is composed of:
---All departments, offices and other bodies which furnish but normally do not sell to the community those common services which cannot otherwise be conveniently and economically provided and administer the state and the economics and social policy of the community. (Public enterprises are included in the Business Enterprise sector.)
--- NPIs controlled and mainly financed by government. (Frascati, 168)

159. Sector, Higher Education

This sector is comprised of: All universities, colleges of technology and other institutes of post-secondary education, whatever their source of finance or legal status. It also includes all research institutes, experimental stations and clinics operating under the direct control of or administrated by or associated with higher education establishments. (Frascati, 190)

160. Sector, Private Non-Profit

This sector includes:
--- Non-market, private non-profit institutions serving households (i.e. the general public);
--- Private individuals or households. (Frascati, 178)

161. Significant R&D Activities

Include all units where at least one FTE is worked on R&D per year. (Frascati, 394)

162. SME

Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

163. SNA

System of National Accounts (Frascati, 10)
The sectors for the GERD, as chosen and defined by the OECD, are based largely on existing United Nations classifications and in particular, the System for national Accounts (SNA). (Framework for Measuring Research and Development in Canada, cat# 88-506E, p. 15)

164. SPI

The proportion of sales due to products in the introduction phase (Oslo, 152-155, 161-4)

165. SPRU

Science Policy Research Unit at the University of Sussex in the United Kingdom. (Oslo, p. 6, para 65, 87)
Collects information on major technical innovations in British industry, covering sources and types of innovation, industry innovation patterns, cross-industry linkages, regional aspects and so on. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 384)

166. SR&ED

Scientific Research and Experimental Development. Revenue Canada's tax benefit program.

167. SSH

Social Sciences and Humanities (Frascati, 25-7)

168. SSHRC

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

169. STA

Scientific and Technological Activities (Frascati, 15-6)
The concept has been developed by UNESCO. It comprise "...systematic activities which are closely concerned with the generation, advancement, dissemination and application of scientific and technical knowledge in all fields of science and technology. These include such activities as R&D, scientific and technical education and training (STET) and the scientific and technological services (STS)..." (Frascati, 16)

170. StatCan

Statistics Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

171. STEP

Scientific, Technical and Engineering Personnel, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

172. STET

Scientific and Technical Education and Training. Cover "...all activities comprising specialized non-university higher education and training, higher education and training leading to a university degree, post-graduate and further training, and organized lifelong training for scientists and engineers. These activities correspond broadly to ISCED levels 5, 6, and 7." (Frascati, 17)

173. STID

The Scientific, Technological and Industrial Indicators Division of the OECD's Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry (DSTI). STID is responsible for providing internationally-comparable statistics and indicators, to meet the policy an analytical needs of member governments, in the areas overseen by the Industry Committee and Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy (CSTP). (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 281)
Objectives of STIID, (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 284)

174. STS

Scientific and Technological Services. Defined as "...activities concerned with research and experimental development and contributing to the generation, dissemination and application of scientific and technical knowledge." (Frascati, 18)

175. Supporting Staff, Other

Includes skilled and unskilled craftsmen, secretarial and clerical staff participating in R&D projects or directly associated with such projects. (Frascati, 320)

176. TBP

Technology Balance of Payments (Oslo, 202-6). There is an OECD publication on the TBP, OECD TBP Manual. (Oslo, 205, 275)
See paper by Giorgio Sirilli, "Technological balance of payment as an indicator of technology transfer," Science and Public Policy, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 347-56.

177. TC

Transport Canada, (Resource, vol 1, p 41)

178. TCT

Technological Cycle Time
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 373)

179. TEP

The OECD's Technology-Economy Programma (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 281)
The aim of the three-year Technology-Economy Programma (TEP) launched by the OECD's governing body, the Council, in 1988, was to improve the understanding of the relationship between technology and the economy, and to lead the policy recommendations for governments and for the OECD itself. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 282)
Indicators of TEP, (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 383)

180. Technicians and Equivalent Staff

Persons whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in one or more fields of engineering physical and life sciences or social sciences and humanities. They participate in R&D performing scientific and technical tasks involving the applications of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers. Equivalent staff perform the corresponding R&D tasks under the supervision of researchers in the social sciences and humanities. (Frascati, 317)

181. Techno-globalism

...is used to describe the linkage between technology and the economy leading to the proliferation of inter-firm co-operation agreements, mergers and acquisitions, and cross-shareholders. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 283)

182. Tooling-up and industrial engineering

Cover acquisition of and changes in production machinery and tools and in production and quality control procedures, methods and standards required to manufacture the new product or to use the new process. (Frascati, 21)

183. TS

Technological Strength
...computed from CHI's TECH-LINE data as: TS = number of patents X current impact index. (Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 372)

184. UIC

Exchange Office, Italy
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 6, p 348)

185. UN

United Nations

186. UN/ECE

United Nations' Economic Commission for Europe
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 289)

187. UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

188. UNIDO

UN Industrial Development Organization
(Science and Public Policy, vol 19, no 5, p 289)

189. UNSTAT

UN Statistical Office

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Bibliography

Government of Canada, Resource Book for Science and Technology Consultations, 2 Vols., Secretariat for Science and Technology Review, Industry Canada, June and August 1994.

Lipsett, Morely S. and Smith, Richard K. "Cybernetics, and (real) National Innovation Systems," School of Communications, and Center for Policy Research on Science and Technology (CPROST), Simon Fraser University. Paper prepared for 1995 IEEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, October 22-25, 1995 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Lipsett, Morley S., and Holbrook, A., and Lipsey, Richard G. "R&D and Innovation at the Firm Level: Improving the S&T Policy Information Base," CPROST, Report CP 95-9. Paper presented at the Fourth International Conference on S&T Indicators, Antwerp, October, 1995.

OECD, Frascati Manual 1992: Proposed Standard Practice for Survey of Research and Experimental Development, September 17, 1992.

------, Proposed Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Technological innovation Data (Oslo Manual), September 12, 1991.

------, Development of S&T Output Indicators, Contribution by Industry, Science and Technology Canada, Group of National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators, Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy, drafted April 26, 1993, Paris.

------, Regional R&D Indicators, Group of National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators, Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy, drafted April 20, 1993, Paris.

------, Statistics and Indicators for Innovation and Technology, and Annex 1 & 2, Working Group on Innovation and Technology Policy, Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy, distributed April 19, 1994, Paris.

Science and Public Policy, Journal of the International Science and Policy Foundation, Vol. 19, No. 5 October 1992, and No. 6 December 1992, Great Britain: Beech Tree Publishing, 1992.

Statistics Canada, A Framework for Measuring Research and Development Expenditures in Canada, Catalogue 88-506E, Ottawa: 1984.

Statistics Canada, Indicators of Science and Technology 1990---Resources for research and Development in Canada nd Technological Balance of Payments, Catalogue 88-002, Vol. 1, No. 3, Ottawa: 1990, and Vol. 2, No. 4, Ottawa: 1992.

* * *

Foad Shodjai 
shodjai@sfu.ca
Centre for Policy Research on Science and Technology (CPROST)
Simon Fraser University
Vancouver, BC, CANADA